Low-Carb Medical Research
The purpose of this page is to collect a lot of medical
research about low-carbohydrate diets in one place, and to make that
research understandable to the average person. What you'll find below
are abstracts (short summaries) of medical articles. If you click on
an entire topic, you'll find several articles, and each article will
be followed by an explanation in relatively jargon-free English. Bear
in mind, the explanations were not written by a medical professional.
There are almost certainly errors in some of them. Please refer to
the original article when in doubt, and
mail me if you find an error.
Pick a topic:
Pick an individual article:
- Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: two case reports.
Nebeling LC, Miraldi F, Shurin SB, Lerner E. Nutrition Department, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. J Am Coll Nutr 1995 Apr;14(2):202-208
- Effects of unbalanced diets on cerebral glucose metabolism in the adult rat.
al-Mudallal AS, Levin BE, Lust WD, Harik SI. Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA. Neurology 1995 Dec;45(12):2261-2265
- Weight reduction by a high protein, low carbohydrate diet --- Article in German
Riegler E Med Klin 1976 Jun 11;71(24):1051-1056
- Psychobiological effects of carbohydrates.
Spring B, Chiodo J, Harden M, Bourgeois MJ, Mason JD, Lutherer L. Department of Psychology, UHS, Chicago Medical School, IL 60064. J Clin Psychiatry 1989 May;50 Suppl:27-33
- Changes in macronutrient selection as a function of dietary tryptophan.
White PJ, Cybulski KA, Primus R, Johnson DF, Collier GH, Wagner GC. Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick 08903. Physiol Behav 1988;43(1):73-77
- Sugar, opioids and binge eating.
Fullerton DT, Getto CJ, Swift WJ, Carlson IH Brain Res Bull 1985 Jun;14(6):673-680
- Loss of weight, sodium and water in obese persons consuming a high- or low-carbohydrate diet.
Rabast U, Vornberger KH, Ehl M Ann Nutr Metab 1981;25(6):341-349
- Protein sparing during treatment of obesity: ketogenic versus nonketogenic very low calorie diet.
Vazquez JA, Adibi SA. Department of Medicine, Montefiore University Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Metabolism 1992 Apr;41(4):406-414
- Impaired neutrophil function in children with seizures treated with the ketogenic diet.
Woody RC, Steele RW, Knapple WL, Pilkington NS Jr. Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock. J Pediatr 1989 Sep;115(3):427-430
- The significance of carbohydrates in reducing diets. Article in German.
Zwiauer K. Universitats-Kinderklinik Wien. Infusionstherapie 1989 Aug;16(4):176-181
- Diet induced ketosis in epilepsy and anaesthesia. Metabolic changes in three patients on a ketogenic diet.
Hinton W, Schwartz RH, Loach AB Anaesthesia 1982 Jan;37(1):39-42
- Comparative studies on low-carbohydrate diet and 1,000-Kcal diet in the treatment of obesity.
Bialkowska M, Szostak WB, Chotkowska E, Szczyglowa H, Medrzejewski W Mater Med Pol 1977 Jul;9(3):244-251
- Outpatient treatment of obesity using a low-carbohydrate diet. Article in German.
Rabast U, Kustner H, Zang E, Ehl M, Kasper H Med Klin 1978 Jan 13;73(2):55-59
- Effect of a normocaloric, high fat, low carbohydrate diet on hyperlipoproteinemia in children with chronic renal insufficiency treated by periodic hemodialysis. Article in French.
Gay G, Andre JL, Pierson M, Debry G Nouv Presse Med 1977 Jun 11;6(24):2166
- Changes in lean body mass during three weeks isocaloric low carbohydrate diet.
Schurch PM, Feinendegen LE, Hollmann W MMW Munch Med Wochenschr 1977 Mar 18;119(11):359-360
- Energy utilization of a low carbohydrate diet fed genetically obese rats and mice.
Thenen SW, Mayer J J Nutr 1977 Feb;107(2):320-329
- Pathologic liver tests during low carbohydrate diet. Article in German.
Lutz W Wien Med Wochenschr 1975 May 2;125(18-20):292-295
- The absence of undesirable changes during consumption of the low carbohydrate diet.
Evans E, Stock AL, Yudkin J Nutr Metab 1974;17(6):360-367
- The low-carbohydrate diet in the treatment of obesity.
Yudkin J Postgrad Med 1972 May;51(5):151-154
- Differential effects of various oil diets on the risk of cardiac arrhythmias in rats.
Isensee H, Jacob R. Institute of Physiology II, University of Tubingen, Germany. J Cardiovasc Risk 1994 Dec;1(4):353-359
- Health effects of trans fatty acids.
Ascherio A, Willett WC. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Oct;66(4 Suppl):1006S-1010S
- Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study.
Pietinen P, Ascherio A, Korhonen P, Hartman AM, Willett WC, Albanes D, Virtamo J. Department of Nutrition, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Am J Epidemiol 1997 May 15;145(10):876-887
- Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States.
Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Spiegelman D, Stampfer M, Willett WC. Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. BMJ 1996 Jul 13;313(7049):84-90
- Dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of coronary disease among men.
Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Willett WC. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115. N Engl J Med 1995 Apr 13;332(15):977-982
- New directions in dietary studies of coronary heart disease.
Ascherio A, Willett WC. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA. J Nutr 1995 Mar;125(3 Suppl):647S-655S
- Respiratory quotients lower than 0.70 in ketogenic diets.
Schutz Y, Ravussin E Am J Clin Nutr 1980 Jun;33(6):1317-1319
- Use of the ketogenic diet in treating children with seizures.
McDonald ME. Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. Pediatr Nurs 1997 Sep;23(5):461-464
- Dietary factors in epidemic neuropathy on the Isle of Youth, Cuba.
Gay J, Porrata C, Hernandez M, Clua AM, Arguelles JM, Cabrera A, Silva LC. Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Havana, Cuba. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 1995 Mar;29(1):25-36
- The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation.
Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Evans WJ, Gervino E, Blackburn GL Metabolism 1983 Aug;32(8):769-776
- Reduction of weight loss and tumour size in a cachexia model by a high fat diet.
Tisdale MJ, Brennan RA, Fearon KC Br J Cancer 1987 Jul;56(1):39-43
- The regulation of ketogenesis.
Foster DW, McGarry JD Ciba Found Symp 1982;87:120-131
- The effect of ketone bodies and dietary carbohydrate intake on protein metabolism.
Sherwin RS Acta Chir Scand Suppl 1981;507:30-40
- Effect of a very-low-calorie diet on body composition and resting metabolic rate in obese men and women.
Burgess NS. Center for Exercise Science and Cardiovascular Research, Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago 60625. J Am Diet Assoc 1991 Apr;91(4):430-434
- The effect of varying carbohydrate content of a very-low-caloric diet on resting metabolic rate and thyroid hormones.
Mathieson RA, Walberg JL, Gwazdauskas FC, Hinkle DE, Gregg JM Metabolism 1986 May;35(5):394-398
- The effect of fat composition of the diet on energy metabolism.
van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Mensink RP, Westerterp KR. Department of Human Biology University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Medline record in process. Ernahrungswiss 1997 Dec;36(4):303-305
- Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women.
Racette SB, Schoeller DA, Kushner RF, Neil KM, Herling-Iaffaldano K. Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, IL 60637. Am J Clin Nutr 1995 Mar;61(3):486-494
- Psychological and metabolic effects of dietary carbohydrates and dexfenfluramine during a low-energy diet in obese women.
Kogon MM, Krauchi K, Van der Velde P, Van der Werf H, Keller U. Division of Endocrinology, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Am J Clin Nutr 1994 Oct;60(4):488-493
- Exercise capacity and nitrogen loss during a high or low carbohydrate diet.
Walberg JL, Ruiz VK, Tarlton SL, Hinkle DE, Thye FW. Laboratory for Exercise, Sport, and Work Physiology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24061. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988 Feb;20(1):34-43
- Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet?
Golay A, Eigenheer C, Morel Y, Kujawski P, Lehmann T, de Tonnac N. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Geneva. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996 Dec;20(12):1067-1072
- Urolithiasis associated with the ketogenic diet.
Herzberg GZ, Fivush BA, Kinsman SL, Gearhart JP. Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins Children's Medical and Surgical Center, Baltimore, Maryland. J Pediatr 1990 Nov;117(5):743-745
- Effects of a polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich diet on serum lipids in patients with chronic renal failure.
Tsukamoto Y, Okubo M, Yoneda T, Marumo F, Nakamura H Nephron 1982;31(3):236-241
- The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: physical and biochemical adaptation.
Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Wolfe RR, Blackburn GL Metabolism 1983 Aug;32(8):757-768
- The Effects of a High-protein, Low-fat, Ketogenic Diet on Adolescents With Morbid Obesity: Body Composition, Blood Chemistries, and Sleep Abnormalities.
Willi SM, Oexmann MJ, Wright NM, Collop NA, Key LL Jr. Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Record supplied by publisher. Pediatrics 1998 Jan 1;101(1):61-67
- Weight loss with high and low carbohydrate 1200 kcal diets in free living women.
Lean ME, Han TS, Prvan T, Richmond PR, Avenell A. University of Glasgow, Department of Human Nutrition, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, UK. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997 Apr;51(4):243-248
- Possible interrelationship between gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in the liver.
Kummel L Biosci Rep 1983 Jul;3(7):643-646
- A randomized controlled trial of low carbohydrate and low fat/high fiber diets for weight loss.
Baron JA, Schori A, Crow B, Carter R, Mann JI Am J Public Health 1986 Nov;76(11):1293-1296
- Comparative studies in obese subjects fed carbohydrate-restricted and high carbohydrate 1,000-calorie formula diets.
Rabast U, Kasper H, Schonborn J Nutr Metab 1978;22(5):269-277
- Energy and macronutrient balances for humans in a whole body metabolic chamber without control of preceding diet and activity level.
White MD, Bouchard G, Buemann B, Almeras N, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997 Feb;21(2):135-140
- The Effects on Human Beings of a Twelve Months Exclusive Meat Diet.
Lieb, Clarence W., M.D., Journal of the American Medical Association (July 6, 1929) 20-22.
- Protein-induced hypercalciuria: a longer term study.
Allen LH, Oddoye EA, Margen S Am J Clin Nutr 1979 Apr;32(4):741-749
- Is muscle lipoprotein lipase inactivated by ordinary amounts of dietary carbohydrates?
Lithell H, Karlstrom B, Selinus I, Vessby B, Fellstrom B Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1985 Jul;39(4):289-295
- Effects of ingestion of high protein or excess methionine diets by rats for two years.
Fau D, Peret J, Hadjiisky P Centre de Recherches sur la Nutrition, CNRS, Meudon-Bellevue, France. J Nutr 1988 Jan;118(1):128-133
- Thermogenesis from the breakdown of a ketogenic diet in an experimental model using swine. Article in German.
Kirchgessner M, Muller HL Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1984;54(1):99-106
- Protein metabolism during weight reduction with very-low-energy diets: evaluation of the independent effects of protein and carbohydrate on protein sparing.
Vazquez JA, Kazi U, Madani N Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA. Am J Clin Nutr 1995 Jul;62(1):93-103
- Body composition, nitrogen metabolism, and energy utilization with feeding of mildly restricted (4.2 MJ/d) and severely restricted (2.1 MJ/d) isonitrogenous diets.
Stanko RT, Tietze DL, Arch JE Clinical Nutrition Unit, Montefiore University Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Am J Clin Nutr 1992 Oct;56(4):636-640
- Low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets improve wound healing and increase protein levels in surgically stressed rats.
Nirgiotis JG, Hennessey PJ, Black CT, Andrassy RJ Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical School, Houston 77030. J Pediatr Surg 1991 Aug;26(8):925-928
- The effects of age and various fat/carbohydrate caloric ratios on nitrogen retention and wound healing in rats.
Hennessey PJ, Nirgiotis JG, Andrassy RJ Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical School, Houston. J Pediatr Surg 1991 Apr;26(4):367-372
- Influence of dietary carbohydrate-to-fat ratio on whole body nitrogen retention and body composition in adult rats.
McCargar LJ, Baracos VE, Clandinin MT Department of Foods & Nutrition, Faculty of Home Economics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. J Nutr 1989 Sep;119(9):1240-1245
- Protein metabolism in obese patients during very low-calorie mixed diets containing different amounts of proteins and carbohydrates.
Pasquali R, Casimirri F, Melchionda N Institute of Clinical Medicine 1, S. Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Italy. Metabolism 1987 Dec;36(12):1141-1148
- Nitrogen balance and hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats fed on diets containing various proportions of carbohydrate and fat.
Takase S, Morimoto A, Moriuchi S, Hosoya N J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1981;27(3):219-229
- The transient hypercholesterolemia of major weight loss.
Phinney SD, Tang AB, Waggoner CR, Tezanos-Pinto RG, Davis PA Am J Clin Nutr 1991 Jun;53(6):1404-1410
- Chronic effects of dietary protein in the rat with intact and reduced renal mass.
Hostetter TH, Meyer TW, Rennke HG, Brenner BM Kidney Int 1986 Oct;30(4):509-517
- Functional alterations in the rat kidney induced either by diabetes or high protein diet.
Dunger A, Berg S, Kloting I, Schmidt S Institute of Diabetes Gerhardt Katsch Karlsburg, Germany. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1997;105 Suppl 2:48-50
- Effects of dietary protein and calorie restriction in clinically normal cats and in cats with surgically induced chronic renal failure.
Adams LG, Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, O'Brien TD Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108. Am J Vet Res 1993 Oct;54(10):1653-1662
- The effect of protein intake on the lifelong changes in renal function of rats with a solitary kidney damaged at young age.
Provoost AP, De Keijzer MH, Molenaar JC Department of Pediatric Surgery, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. J Urol 1990 Aug;144(2 Pt 2):567-573
- Elemental content of predigested liquid protein products.
Jones AO, Jacobs RM, Fry BE Jr, Jones JW, Gould JH Am J Clin Nutr 1980 Dec;33(12):2545-2550
- Abnormal electrocardiograms in rats deficient in copper.
Klevay LM, Viestenz KE Am J Physiol 1981 Feb;240(2):H185-H189
- Vigorous supplementation of a hypocaloric diet prevents cardiac arrhythmias and mineral depletion.
Amatruda JM, Biddle TL, Patton ML, Lockwood DH Am J Med 1983 Jun;74(6):1016-1022
- Long-term renal responses to high dietary protein in dogs with 75% nephrectomy.
Robertson JL, Goldschmidt M, Kronfeld DS, Tomaszewski JE, Hill GS, Bovee KC Kidney Int 1986 Feb;29(2):511-519
- Influence of dietary protein/calorie intake on renal morphology and function in cats with 5/6 nephrectomy.
Adams LG, Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, O'Brien TD, Hostetter TH Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Lab Invest 1994 Mar;70(3):347-357
- Controlled changes in chronic dietary protein intake do not change glomerular filtration rate.
Wiegmann TB, Zlomke AM, MacDougall ML, Kipp DE Kidney and Urology Research Center, Kansas City, KS. Am J Kidney Dis 1990 Feb;15(2):147-154
- Protein intake and kidney function in humans: its effect on 'normal aging'.
Blum M, Averbuch M, Wolman Y, Aviram A Department of Nephrology, Rokach Hospital, Tel Aviv, Israel. Arch Intern Med 1989 Jan;149(1):211-212
- Effect of chronic dietary protein intake on the renal function in healthy subjects.
Brandle E, Sieberth HG, Hautmann RE Department of Urology, University of Ulm, Germany. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996 Nov;50(11):734-740
- Effects of a high protein intake on renal acid excretion in bodybuilders.
Manz F, Remer T, Decher-Spliethoff E, Hohler M, Kersting M, Kunz C, Lausen B. Forschungsinstitut fur Kinderernahrung, Dortmund. Ernahrungswiss 1995 Mar;34(1):10-15
- Dietary supplementation of L-arginine ameliorates renal hypertrophy in rats fed a high-protein diet.
Reyes AA, Klahr S Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, Missouri 63110. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Jun;206(2):157-161
- Parathyroid removal prevents the progression of chronic renal failure induced by high protein diet.
Shigematsu T, Caverzasio J, Bonjour JP Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. Kidney Int 1993 Jul;44(1):173-181
- Influence of the level of hydration on the renal response to a protein meal.
Hadj-Aissa A, Bankir L, Fraysse M, Bichet DG, Laville M, Zech P, Pozet N Service d'Exploration Fonctionnelle Renale, Hopital E. Herriot, Lyon, France. Kidney Int 1992 Nov;42(5):1207-1216
- Renal, metabolic and hormonal responses to ingestion of animal and vegetable proteins.
Kontessis P, Jones S, Dodds R, Trevisan R, Nosadini R, Fioretto P, Borsato M, Sacerdoti D, Viberti G. Unit for Metabolic Medicine, United Medical School, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Kidney Int 1990 Jul;38(1):136-144
- The effects of dietary excesses in animal protein and in sodium on the composition and the crystallization kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate in urines of healthy men.
Kok DJ, Iestra JA, Doorenbos CJ, Papapoulos SE. Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Leiden, The Netherlands. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990 Oct;71(4):861-867
- Correlation between protein and sodium intake and calciuria in calcium lithiasis. Article in French.
Jungers P, Daudon M, Hennequin C, Lacour B. Departement de Nephrologie, INSERM U 90, Hopital Necker, Paris. Nephrologie 1993;14(6):287-290
- Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets.
Golay A, Allaz AF, Morel Y, de Tonnac N, Tankova S, Reaven G. Department of Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland. Am J Clin Nutr 1996 Feb;63(2):174-178
- Effect of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein on branched-chain amino acid catabolism during caloric restriction.
Vazquez JA, Morse EL, Adibi SA J Clin Invest 1985 Aug;76(2):737-743
- Metabolic effects of very low calorie weight reduction diets.
Hoffer LJ, Bistrian BR, Young VR, Blackburn GL, Matthews DE J Clin Invest 1984 Mar;73(3):750-758
- Glucose utilization and nitrogen balance in the obese on a protein-lipid hypocaloric diet.
Reid D, Rasio E Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1982 Mar;60(3):319-323
- The mechanisms of nitrogen sparing in fasting supplemented by protein and carbohydrate.
Bistrian BR, Sherman M, Young V J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981 Oct;53(4):874-878
- Effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of moderate renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study.
No authors listed. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996 Dec;7(12):2616-2626
- Effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of advanced renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study.
Levey AS, Adler S, Caggiula AW, England BK, Greene T, Hunsicker LG, Kusek JW, Rogers NL, Teschan PE. National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Am J Kidney Dis 1996 May;27(5):652-663
- Nutrition, ageing and GFR: is age-associated decline inevitable?
Kimmel PL, Lew SQ, Bosch JP. Department of Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996;11 Suppl 9:85-88
- Renal reserve: a functional view of glomerular filtration rate.
Bosch JP. Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA. Semin Nephrol 1995 Sep;15(5):381-385
- End-stage renal disease: can dietary protein restriction prevent it?
Buckalew VM Jr. Department of Internal Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1053. South Med J 1994 Oct;87(10):1034-1037
- Chicken and fish diet reduces glomerular hyperfiltration in IDDM patients.
Pecis M, de Azevedo MJ, Gross JL. Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Diabetes Care 1994 Jul;17(7):665-672
- The effects of dietary protein restriction and blood-pressure control on the progression of chronic renal disease. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group.
Klahr S, Levey AS, Beck GJ, Caggiula AW, Hunsicker L, Kusek JW, Striker G. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. N Engl J Med 1994 Mar 31;330(13):877-884
- Effect of protein intake on glycaemic control and renal function in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.
Pomerleau J, Verdy M, Garrel DR, Nadeau MH. Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, Canada. Diabetologia 1993 Sep;36(9):829-834
- Protein restriction in chronic renal failure.
Kist-van Holthe tot Echten JE, Nauta J, Hop WC, de Jong MC, Reitsma-Bierens WC, Ploos van Amstel SL, van Acker KJ, Noordzij CM, Wolff ED. Department of Paediatrics, Sophia Children's Hospital/University Hospital Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Arch Dis Child 1993 Mar;68(3):371-375